家畜ウシの起源:Origin of cattle


Bos primigenius(Aurochs, cattle):オーロックス、家畜ウシ
Bos grunniens(Yak):ヤク
Bos javanicus(Banteng):バンテン
Bos frontalis(Gayal):ガヤル
Bos gaurus(Gaur):ガウア
Bos sauveli(Kouprey):コープレイ
Bison bonasus(European bison, wisent):ヨーロッパバイソン
Bison bison(American bison, American buffalo):アメリカバイソン、バッファロー

Yak, Date1898(Author:Lydekker, Richard)

Banteng at Indonesia(Author:rochmad setyadi)



A young male Kouprey, the horns not yet fully developed, photographed 1937 at the Zoo of Vincennes, Paris.(Author:Georges Broihanne)

European Bison(Author:Talks Presenters)

Bison(Author:Jack Dykinga)

メスのミトコンドリアDNAで見ると、ヨーロッパバイソン(Bison bonasus, wisent)は、家畜ウシ(Bos taurus, ox, zebu)と近縁である(*1)。ところが、オスのY染色体で見ると、ヨーロッパバイソン(wisent)はアメリカバイソン(bison)と近縁である。これは、ヨーロッパバイソン(wisent)が、バイソン系統のオスとオーロックス系統のメスが交差して成立したためと考えられている。(*2)

Phylogenetic analyses including all the diversity for banteng and gaur sequences. The phylogenetic trees were carried out with the Bayesian approach, and the values on the branches correspond to posterior probabilities greater than 0.5. The analyses were done by including all sequences of banteng (Bos javanicus) and gaur (Bos frontalis) available in the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. Banteng and gaur sequences produced during this study are indicated by black circle. The tree in (A) was found by analysing the sequences of the subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidase (CO2), whereas the tree in (B) was obtained with the cytochrome b gene sequences (Cyb). (Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 33, Issue 3, 2004, P 896-907)

Phylogenetic trees of bovine species. In the Neighbor-Joining tree the circled numbers correspond to the numbering of lineages in the text. The figures near nodes indicate bootstrapping percentages of the Neighbor-Joining (nj) maximum parsimony (mp), and maximum likelihood with the HKY + G model (ml; Swofford 2000) or the fraction of times a given clade occurs in the trees sampled during Bayesian analysis (ba); the figures of 100 are generated by three or all four of the algorithms. The interrupted line indicates an alternative position of wisent, diverging from a cluster of lineages (1), (3), and (4) (Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol 21, Issue 7, 1 July 2004, P 1165–1170)

Explanations for the divergence of the mitochondrial DNA from bison and wisent (Molecular Biology and Evolution, Vol 21, Issue 7, 1 July 2004, P 1165–1170)


家畜ウシの原種は、オーロックス(Bos primigenius)である。オーロックスは、最後の1頭が1627年にポーランドで死んで絶滅してしまった。絶滅したオーロックスには、少なくとも、次の3つの亜種が存在したことが認められている。

Bos primigenius primigenius(Aurochs):ユーラシア大陸に広く分布
Bos primigenius namadicus(Indian Aurochs):インドに分布、3,200年前?に絶滅
Bos primigenius africanus(African Aurochs):北アフリカに分布

Aurochs, the original probably dates from the 16th century(Author:Charles Hamilton Smith)

Aurochs bull at the Zoological Museum in Copenhagen. 7400 BC, found on Prejlerup.(Author:Michael B. H.)



Watusi Cattle(Sanga cattle)アフリカ(Author:Just chaos)

なお、家畜ウシの学名は、以前はBos taurus(cattle)あるいはBos indicus(zebu)であったが、現在は、祖先のオーロックスとおなじBos primigeniusに統一されている。

Bos taurusBos primigenius taurus(cattle):ウシ
Bos indicusBos primigenius indicus(zebu):ゼブー、コブウシ

2014年に、134品種1,543頭の家畜ウシの遺伝子の解析が行われている(*3)。家畜ウシは、アジア、ユーラシア、アフリカの3つの大きなグループに分かれた。また品種としては、ウシ(Bos taurus taurus)、ゼブー(Bos taurus indicus)、バンテン(Bos javanicus)の3種に大きく分けられる。家畜化が行われたおもな場所は、肥沃な三日月地帯とインダス渓谷の2か所と考えられる。

バンテン(Bos javanicus)は、ウシやゼブーの祖先の系統と、より古い時代に分岐した祖先に由来する。



Principal component analysis of 1,543 animals genotyped with 43,043 SNPs. Points were colored according to geographic origin of breed; black: Africa, green: Asia, red: North and South America, orange: Australia, and blue: Europe. (PLoS Genet 10(3): e1004254)

Phylogenetic network of the inferred relationships between 74 cattle breeds. Breeds were colored according to their geographic origin; black: Africa, green: Asia, red: North and South America, orange: Australia, and blue: Europe. Scale bar shows 10 times the average standard error of the estimated entries in the sample covariance matrix. Common ancestor of domesticated taurines is indicated by an asterisk. Migration edges were colored according to percent ancestry received from the donor population. Migration edge a is hypothesized to be from wild African auroch into domesticates from the Fertile Crescent. Migration edge b is hypothesized to be introgression from hybrid African cattle. Migration edge c is hypothesized to be introgression from Bali/indicine hybrids into other Indonesian cattle. Migration edge d signals introgression of African taurine into Iberia. Migration edges e and f represent introgression from Brahman into American Criollo. (PLoS Genet 10(3): e1004254)

Worldwide map with country averages of ancestry proportions with 3 ancestral populations (K = 3). Blue represents Eurasian Bos t. taurus ancestry, green represents Bos javanicus and Bos t. indicus ancestry, and dark grey represents African Bos. t. taurus ancestry. Please note, averages do not represent the entire populations of each country, as we do not have a geographically random sample. (PLoS Genet 10(3): e1004254) 青:ユーラシアの系統、緑:ゼブーとバンテンの系統、ダークグレー:アフリカの系統

Phylogenetic network of the inferred relationships between 14 cattle breeds. Breeds were colored according to their geographic origin; green: Asia, and blue: Europe. Scale bar shows 10 times the average standard error of the estimated entries in the sample covariance matrix. Migration edges were colored according to percent ancestry received from the donor population. Migration edges show indicine introgression into Mongolian cattle, African taurine and indicine ancestry in Marchigiana, and a northern European influence on Wagyu. (PLoS Genet 10(3): e1004254)


*1)Alexandre Hassanin, AnneRopiquet, (2004) Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Bovidae, Bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the Kouprey, Bos sauveli Urbain 1937, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol 33, Issue 3, 2004, P 896-907
*2)Edward L. C. Verkaar  Isaäc J. Nijman  Maurice Beeke Eline Hanekamp  Johannes A. Lenstra, (2004) Maternal and Paternal Lineages in Cross-Breeding Bovine Species. Has Wisent a Hybrid Origin?, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 21, Issue 7, 1 July 2004, Pages 1165–1170,
*3)Decker JE, McKay SD, Rolf MM, Kim J, Molina Alcalá A, Sonstegard TS, et al. (2014) Worldwide Patterns of Ancestry, Divergence, and Admixture in Domesticated Cattle. PLoS Genet 10(3): e1004254
*4)Bollongino R, Burger J, Powell A, Mashkour M, Vigne JD, Thomas MG. (2012) Modern Taurine Cattle Descended from Small Number of Near-Eastern Founders. Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 29, Issue 9, 1 September 2012, Pages 2101–2104,

電子園芸BOOK社 (2016-07-29)
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ヒツジの起源:Origin of domestic sheep


Ovis. canadensis(Bighorn):ビッグホーン
O. dalli(Dall sheep):ドールビッグホーン
O. nivicola(Snow Sheep):シベリアビッグホーン
O. ammon(Argali):アルガリ
O. vignei(Urial):ウリアル
O. orientalis(Mouflon):ムフロン

The different classifications of the genus Ovis.

Phylogeography of the wild Ovis species. The map shows the geographic distribution of the seven wild Ovis species according to the classification of Nadler et al. (1973). The Chronogram presented is from a Bayesian dating analysis of the Cyt b data. Divergence times are given ±95% CI. The chromosome numbers are given for each taxon. The O. orientalis × vignei hybrids, which have a ploidy between 2n = 54 and 2n = 58, are not presented. The chromosome numbers given in italic refer to the hypothetical ancestral states according to the most parsimonious evolutionary scenario with regards to the Cyt b phylogeny.(Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (2010) 315–326)

Differences among Cyt b haplotypes within and between Ovis species. Values above the diagonal give the average pairwise differences between species. Diagonal values give the pairwise difference within each group.

Bighorn(Author:Kim Keating)

Dall sheep(Author:Denali National Park and Preserve)

Snow sheep(Author:Joseph Smit)



Mouflon(Author:Jörg Hempel)

ヒツジ(O. aries)の原種は、ムフロン(O. orientalis)である。ムフロンは、トルコ、コーカサス、イランなどに分布するが、ヨーロッパ(O. orientalis musimon)やキプロス島(O. orientalis ophion)にも生息している。

2002年、および2007年の報告によれば、家畜のヒツジのミトコンドリアDNAには、A、B、C、D、Eの5つのハプログループが存在する。ハプロAとBは、別々に家畜化され、ヨーロッパムフロン(O.o.musimon)は、ハプロBに属している。ヨーロッパムフロンは、新石器時代にアジアからヨーロッパに運ばれたのではないかと考えられている。(*2, 3)

Summary of sheep breed and mitochondrial haplogroup phylogenetic variation.(Genetics. 2007 Mar; 175(3): 1371–1379)

Five mtDNA lineages illustrated with two types of phylogenetic tree. (a) Neighbor-joining tree showing O. aries lineages in relation to wild sheep using cytB sequence (967 bp). Analysis of animals from nine domestic breeds (n = 197) was supplemented with wild Ovis species and a divergent haplotype previously identified from the Karayaka breed (Pedrosa et al. 2005). Additional data on the relationship between wild Ovis species are presented elsewhere (Hiendleder et al. 2002; Bunch et al. 2006). Bootstrap values are indicated on cluster nodes; values in parentheses were taken from a similar tree constructed using the mtCR-cytB data set (2027 bp). (b) Weighted median-joining network showing mt haplotypes. Node size is proportional to haplotype frequency and the mutational differences between haplogroups are proportional to branch length (D shown on branch). The smallest node is representative of one animal.(Genetics. 2007 Mar; 175(3): 1371–1379)

2009年に、ヒツジのゲノム内の内在性レトロウイルスのDNA解析が行われている。133品種1362頭の家畜ヒツジと63系統の野生のヒツジ属(O. vignei, O. orientalis musimon, O. orientalis ophion, O. orientalis orientalis)の調査の結果、ヒツジの家畜化(選択)は、はじめに南西アジアで起こり、次いで、ヨーロッパ、アフリカ、アジアに広がったことが示唆された。(*4)

Worldwide distribution of insertionally polymorphic enJSRVs. Distribution of the insertionally polymorphic enJSRV loci analysed in this study in 65 sheep populations representing local breeds from the old world. (A) Frequencies of each enJSRV locus in each population are represented by a vertical bar and arranged in a descending order. Insertion frequencies were obtained using the software Arlequin 3.11 (27) treating the absence of a specific enJSRV provirus as a recessive allele. (B) Locations of sheep populations sampled. (C-F). Interpolation maps displaying the spatial distribution of estimated enJSRVs frequencies. The geographical variation was visualized using the ‘Spatial Analyst Extension’ of ArcView GIS 3.2 software (ESRI, Redlands, CA, USA; http://www.esri.com). Interpolated map values were calculated employing the inverse distance–weighted with 12 nearest neighbours and a power of two, and interpolation surfaces were divided into 13 classes with higher insertion frequencies indicated by darkest shading. The central point of the sampling area was used as geographic coordinates for each population.(Science24 Apr 2009 : 532-536)

Combination of enJSRV proviruses (retrotypes) in the domestic sheep. Pie charts in the figure represent the frequency of each retrotype in the 65 populations tested. Each sheep tested was assigned a retrotype on the basis of the combination of insertionally polymorphic enJSRV proviruses present in their genome. Retrotypes were defined R0 to R14 as follows: RO = no insertionally polymorphic enJSRVs; R1 = enJSRV-7; R2 = enJSRV-18; R3 = enJS5F16; R4 = enJSRV-7 + enJSRV-18; R5 = enJSRV-7 + enJS5F16; R6 = enJSRV-18 + enJS5F16; R7 = enJSRV-7 + enJSRV-18+ enJS5F16; R8 = enJSRV-8; R9 =enJS5F16 + enJSRV-8; R10 = enJSRV-7 + enJS5F16 + enJSRV-8; R11 = enJSRV-18 + enJSRV-8; R12 = enJSRV-18 + enJS5F16 + enJSRV-8; R13 = enJSRV-7 + enJSRV-18 + enJSRV-8; R14 = enJSRV-7 + enJSRV-18 + enJS5F16 + enJSRV-8. Each retrotype is represented with a different colour (and pattern) as indicated in the figure. Numbers beside each pie chart indicate each of the 65 populations tested as indicated in Table S1. Note that most of the populations in South-West Asia, Central Asia, Southern Europe and Africa possess R2 (i.e. presence of enJSRV-18 only, shown in green) as the predominant retrotype. Around the Mediterranean basin there is also a high proportion of R4 given by the contemporary presence of enJSRV-7 and enJSRV-18 (shown in yellow). The primitive breeds are characterized by a high proportion of animals with R0 (no insertionally polymorphic proviruses, shown in white) or R1 (presence of enJSRV-7 only, shown in red). A ‘Nordic’ retrotype R3 (shown in blue) was characterized by a low frequency of enJSRV-18 and a high frequency of enJS5F16; Nordic populations also had a relatively high frequency of sheep with none of the insertionally polymorphic proviruses tested.(Science24 Apr 2009 : 532-536)

2013年には、現在のトルコ国内の家畜ヒツジ(628頭)、現在の野生ムフロン(O. gmelinii anatolica)(30頭)、およびトルコ南部の遺跡(OylumHöyük BCE 1880-330)から出土したサンプル(33頭)のミトコンドリアDNAの分析結果が報告された(*5)。なお、O. gmelinii anatolicaは、O. orientalisのことである。




The neighbor-joining tree of mtDNA CR sequences from domestic sheep and O. g. anatolica samples. The haplogroups (HPGs A–E) and two clusters (Cluster i and Cluster ii) formed by the sequences are designated. The bootstrap values are indicated on the main branches of the tree.(PLoS ONE 8(12): e81952.)

Summary of mtDNA haplogroup diversity of domestic sheep.(PLoS ONE 8(12): e81952.)

Haplogroup/haplotype compositions of the breeds, aDNA and O. g. anatolica on the map of Turkey. The locations of the pie charts on the centroids of the collection sites are all within the native distributions of the breeds or within the current day distribution for O. g. anatolica. Ancient DNA (aDNA) samples are located in the Kilis province, where Oylum Höyük is located. aDNA samples are considered in two successive time intervals therefore they are represented by two pie charts. The abbreviations of the breed names are given in the Materials and Methods section.(PLoS ONE 8(12): e81952.)

Median-joining network of mtDNA partial cytB sequences found within modern domestic and wild sheep. Nodes representing the haplotypes are proportional to the sample sizes used for the construction of the network. Haplotype names are given near the nodes. The ellipses labeled with letters A–E refer to the haplotypes of the individuals whose haplogroups were identified in domestic sheep in accordance with their CR sequences. The accession numbers of sequences used in the MJ network and their respective haplotypes are given together with the reference studies in Table S4.(PLoS ONE 8(12): e81952.)

The distribution of wild samples that were employed in Figure 3.The collection sites for members of Clusters I, II and III are indicated on the map with the brown region, the region with yellow borders and the blue region, respectively. The exact locations of collection sites (solid red circles) together with haplotypes (as depicted in Figure 3) of the wild O. gmelinii members of Cluster I (typed in red) and Cluster II (typed in black) including O. g. ophion are shown. The exact locations of the hybrids (not shown) were used in drawing the borders of the region with yellow borders and the blue region. The map was created using ArcMap™ within ArcGIS Desktop 10.(PLoS ONE 8(12): e81952.)

2013年の報告を読んだときに、びっくりしたのは、キプロス島の野生ムフロン(O. g. ophion)が、クラスターⅡに入っていたことである。現在のキプロスムフロンが、12,000年前に運び込まれたムフロンの子孫であるならば、12,000年前のキプロスムフロンは、もともとはイラン高原などに生息していたムフロンの系統ということになる。


*1)Hamid Reza Rezaei, et al.(2010)Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (2010) 315–326.
*2)Stefan Hiendleder, et al.(2002)Molecular analysis of wild and domestic sheep questions current nomenclature and provides evidence for domestication from two different subspecies. Proc Biol Sci. 2002 May 7;269(1494):893-904.
*3)Jennifer R. S. Meadows, et al. (2007) Five Ovine Mitochondrial Lineages Identified From Sheep Breeds of the Near East. Genetics. 2007 Mar; 175(3): 1371–1379.
*4)Bernardo Chessa, et al. (2009) Revealing the History of Sheep Domestication Using Retrovirus Integrations. Science24 Apr 2009 : 532-536.
*5)Demirci S, et al. (2013) Mitochondrial DNA Diversity of Modern, Ancient and Wild Sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) from Turkey: New Insights on the Evolutionary History of Sheep. PLoS ONE 8(12): e81952.

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家畜ヤギの起源:Origin of domestic goat



Capra sibirica(Siberian Ibex):シベリアアイベックス
C. nubiana(Nubian Ibex):ヌビアアイベックス
C. ibex(Alpine Ibex):アルプスアイベックス
C. pyrenaica(Spanish goat):スペインアイベックス
C. caucasica(West Caucasian tur):カフカスアイベックス
C. cylindricornis(East Caucasian tur):カフカスツール
C. falconeri(Markhor):マーコール
C. aegagrus(Bezoar, Pasang):ベゾアール、パサン
C. hircus(Goat):家畜ヤギ

Siberian Ibex(Author:Ksuryawanshi)

Nubian Ibex(Author:netzach farbiash)

Alpine Ibex(Author:Bert de Tilly)

Spanish Ibex(Author:Juan Lacruz)

West Caucasian tur(Author:Cedricguppy)

East Caucasian tur(Author:Altaipanther)


Bezoar(Author:F. Spangenberg)

Horn morphology of the Wve major morphotypes: (a) the generalized ibex-type (C. [i.] ibex, C. [i.] nubiana, C. [i.] sibirica, and C. [i.] caucasica), (b) the Spanish goat (C. pyrenaica), (c) the eastern tur (C. cylindricornis), (d) the markhor (C. falconeri), and (e) the bezoar-type (C. aegagrus). Artwork by Julie Dlugos.(Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2006) 739–749)

Approximate geographic distributions of wild Capra: the Spanish goat (C. pyrenaica), the eastern tur (C. cylindricornis), the markhor (C. falconeri), the generalized ibex-type (C. [i.] ibex, C. [i.] nubiana, C. [i.] sibirica, and C. [i.] caucasica) and the bezoar-type (C. aegagrus). Distribution areas are synthesized from Shackleton (1997).(Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2006) 739–749)

Phylogenetic tree constructed with cytochrome b sequences using Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses. Numbers above the line are ML bootstrap values (BP) based on 200 pseudoreplicates. Numbers below the line are Bayesian posterior probabilities based on one million step Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations. See Tables 3 and 4 for details on location codes and GenBank accession numbers which follow species names in parentheses. (b) Phylogenetic tree constructed with AMELY and ZFY sequences using ML and Bayesian analyses. The same topology was obtained using maximum parsimony, and neighbor-joining methods. The (n) indicates the number of samples sequenced for both AMELY and ZFY. Numbers above the line are ML BP based on 200 pseudoreplicates. Numbers below the line are Bayesian posterior probabilities based on one million step Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations.(Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2006) 739–749)

Hypothetical evolutionary scenario of the genus Capra. The encircled symbols represent the possible geographic location of the ancestral ibex-type and bezoar-type.(Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2006) 739–749)

家畜ヤギ(C. hircus)の原種は、ベゾアール(C. aegagrus)である。ベゾアールは、トルコ、コーカサス、イラク、イラン、中央アジアに分布する。また、クレタ島(Kri-kri)など地中海島嶼部にも生息している。


Neighbor-joining trees of domestic goat based on 1540 mtDNA haplotypes (A) and on the 22 reference mtDNA haplotypes (B). Distances were calculated using the Kimura 2-Parameter model with gamma correction (alpha = 0.28). On the (A) tree, the numbers on the branches represent bootstrap values out of 1000 replications, and the stars point out the position of reference individuals for each haplogroup used to construct the (B) tree.(PLoS One. 2007; 2(10): e1012.)

Genetic diversity of goat mtDNA haplogroups(PLoS One. 2007; 2(10): e1012.)



Phylogenetic relationships of the 243 haplotypes from the 473 bezoars studied. This tree was obtained with the NJ method. To identify shared mtDNA haplogroups, 22 haplotypes chosen to represent the overall diversity of modern domestic goats (11) have also been included in the analysis (red). The scale represents the genetic distance. The different colors correspond to the haplotypes from the different mtDNA haplogroups found in domestic goat (A, green; B, dark blue; C, yellow; D, purple; F, light blue; G, orange). The other bezoar haplotypes are represented in white.(PNAS November 18, 2008. 105 (46) 17659-17664)

Study area and geographic distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups in the bezoar. (A) Natural distribution of the bezoar according to Uerpmann (38). This distribution may not have changed since the beginning of goat management/domestication, and stops at the eastern limit of the map. The archaeological sites that give evidence of local pre-Neolithic goat domestication are represented in red. The sites that suggest either local goat domestication or early prepottery Neolithic transfer of domesticated goat are represented in orange. Finally, the sites that provide evidence of transfer of domestic goats out of the original geographic range of the bezoar before the middle of the 10th millennium cal. B.P. are represented in yellow (see Table S1). The northern Zagros comprises the Iranian Provinces of Azerbaijan Gharbi, Zanjan and Kurdistan; the Central Zagros comprises Kermanshah, Lorestan, Khuzestan, and Isfahan Provinces. The Southern Zagros mainly comprises the Fars Province. (B) Geographic distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups in the bezoar. The size of the circles is proportional to the number of individuals analyzed. The different bezoar haplogroups are color-coded as in Fig. 1. Different localities are identified by numbers, as in Table S1.(PNAS November 18, 2008. 105 (46) 17659-17664)

ヤギ、ヒツジ、ウシ、ブタの家畜化についての考古学的な検証としては、2002年の本郷一美氏の報告がある。トルコ南東部のチャヨヌ遺跡(Çayönü)では、12,000~9,000年前の約3,000年間、定住生活が営まれていた。場所は、カラジャ山(Karaca Dağ)の北方に位置している。遺跡から出土した動物骨の分析では、PPNB後期に、ヤギとヒツジの骨が、出土動物骨の大多数を占めるようになる。また、ヤギ、ヒツジ、ウシ、イノシシのサイズが小型化し、死亡年齢と食性の変化も生じている。これらのことから、PPNB後期に家畜の飼育が始まったと推定している。(*4, 5, 6)




*1)Nathalie Pidancier, Steve Jordan, Gordon Luikart, Pierre Taberlet, (2006) Evolutionary history of the genus Capra (Mammalia, Artiodactyla): Discordance between mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome phylogenies.Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (2006) 739–749
*2)Saeid Naderi, Hamid-Reza Rezaei, Pierre Taberlet, Stéphanie Zundel, Seyed-Abbas Rafat, Hamid-Reza Naghash, Mohamed A. A. El-Barody, Okan Ertugrul, François Pompanon.(2007)Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of the domestic goat reveals six maternal lineages with high haplotype diversity. PLoS One. 2007; 2(10): e1012.
*3)Saeid Naderi, Hamid-Reza Rezaei, François Pompanon, Michael G. B. Blum, Riccardo Negrini, Hamid-Reza Naghash, Özge Balkız,f Marjan Mashkour,g Oscar E. Gaggiotti, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Aykut Kence, Jean-Denis Vigne, and Pierre Taberleta,(2008)The goat domestication process inferred from large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of wild and domestic individuals. PNAS November 18, 2008. 105 (46) 17659-17664
*4)本郷一美.(2002)狩猟採集から食料生産への緩やかな移行 : 南東アナトリアにおける家畜化. 国立民族学博物館調査報告 33 109-158
*5)本郷一美.(2008)ドメスティケーションの考古学. 総研大ジャーナル 13 30-35
*6)Hongo, H., Pearson, J., Öksüz, B., Ilgezdi, G. (2009) The Process of Ungulate Domestication at Çayönü, Southeastern Turkey: A Multidisciplinary Approach focusing on Bos sp. and Cervus elaphus. Anthropozoologica 44(1): 63-78.
*7)Vigne, Jean-Denis & Carrre, I & Salige, J.F. & Person, A & Bocherens, Hervé & Guilaine, J & Briois, François. (2000). Predomestic cattle, sheep, goat and pig during the late 9th and the 8th millennium cal. BC on Cyprus: Preliminary results of Shillourokambos (Perkklisha, Limassol). Archaeozoology of the Near East IV. 52-75.

堆肥と土壌の作り方: 身近な有機物を利用する
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